Whether it’s a small start-up with five employees or a sprawling enterprise composed of thousands, companies just don’t exist - they need to be organized, so people’s roles and responsibilities are clear.
A lack of structure - especially on large or cross-functional teams - can result in team’s struggling to take ownership of their workflows. In this way, an organization’s outcomes are a by-product of its org’s structure.
When organizations identify the right structure for them, they build a well-oiled machine that aligns employee productivity with customer needs. When there is structural misalignment, your organization might struggle with disjointed workflows and misdirected product offerings. Read on to determine what structure is best for your organization’s needs.
What is Organizational Structure?
An organizational structure is a modelling system companies use to organize people, build org charts and define how employees fit within an organization.
Common Organizational Structure Types
There are virtually hundreds of organizational structure types companies can use to lay-out their businesses, but there are a few favorites that modern companies return to time and time again. Here are three most common organizational structure types:
1. Functional Organizational Structure
Functional organizational structure is the most common organizational structure type companies use. This popular model groups people into teams and departments based on specific functions. For example, a company’s marketing department might consist of a copywriter, a graphic designer and an SEO strategist, all of whom fall under one marketing manager.
Simply put, these structures follow a traditional top-down approach that eventually rolls up into an overarching C-suite (think: Facebook, Amazon, Tesla).
ChartHop's org chart visualizes your company's functional structure by color-coordinating teams and departments.
- Savvy - Grouping people together based on shared knowledge sets and skills ensures departmental expertise.
- Productivity - Rather than having to train people who aren’t familiar with certain roles, a functional organizational structure equips people to do the work they were hired to do, faster.
- Understanding - This structure type also makes it clear to everyone -- in and outside of the department -- who owns what in the business.
- Disconnect - The bigger businesses become, the more challenging it becomes for different departments to communicate and collaborate with each other.
- Competition - Rather than focusing on the company objectives, team-specific objectives often take priority, weakening common goals.
- Hindered growth - As people become experts in their fields, it becomes difficult for them to explore other internal career paths.
2. Flat Organizational Structure
Opposite of the functional approach, flat organizational structures often have few, or no, people in middle management. In most cases, the chain of command is literally flat -- there are less managerial layers, so employees and managers all work on a level playing field.
The philosophy behind this model eliminates seniority and red tape, so responsibilities and power are equally distributed across the board, giving everyone a hand in the decision-making process. Many startups start out with a flat structure, but may choose to add hierarchy into the mix as they scale.
ChartHop's org chart enables you to visualize your company's flat org structure.
- Collaboration - Employees have more room to communicate and collaborate with everyone in the organization, not just the members of their team.
- Agility - With less bureaucratic red tape, employees can be agile and make decisions faster.
- Cost-Efficiency - Because there’s limited seniority, companies can save money on salaries and benefit-related expenses.
- Confusion - With a lack of clear reporting structures and consolidated teams, employees can get confused over project ownership.
- Disorder - Since everyone is doing a little bit of everything in this format, jobs are less defined and boundaries blurred, often leading to confusion and disorganization.
- Power Struggles - A lack of management can become frustrating, sparking competition for control between employees.
3. Matrix Organizational Structure
Matrix organizational structure is a popular hybrid structure that is often used to streamline project management.
This model promotes collaboration from different teams and departments. So, rather than having one manager oversee a single team, employees from different departments might report to two or three different types of managers, like a functional manager and a project manager, throughout the process.
When laid out on a physical org chart, the intersections from various teams create a grid, hence the name “matrix organizational structure.”
ChartHop's org chart visualizes your company's matrix structure by labeling and color-coordinating by cross-functional or project-specific teams.
- Teamwork - The matrix organizational structure is specifically designed to promote collaboration between departments, so projects can get done more efficiently and effectively.
- Communication - Direct, consistent feedback from multiple managers allow for better clarity and coordination compared to other structure types.
- Opportunity - Since the matrix structure connects people from different departments and teams, people have a chance to develop new skill sets and explore more career paths.
- Confusion - Reporting to multiple managers can be complicated and confusing for employees, especially when it comes to defining roles and managing expectations.
- Conflict - Competition for authority and the “final-word” can arise when two or more managers oversee a project.
- Burnout - Under the matrix organizational structure, everyone is juggling a heavy workload, often on top of their everyday responsibilities, which isn’t ideal for morale and motivation.
Other Organizational Structure Types
These are far from the only types of organizational structure a company can use to build its org chart. Here are some other options…
Divisional Organizational Structure
Large enterprises especially might employ a divisional organizational structure to configure their org chart.
This structure type splits parts of the business into self-governing divisions, each with its own executive suite. This allows larger sections of the company to run with autonomy, often having their own business operations entirely, like hiring, marketing and budgeting.
Network Organizational Structure
A network organizational structure involves two or more independent organizations partnering together in some capacity to do business. It’s not necessarily something that is displayed in an org chart, as it usually involves externally outsourced operations and contracted business agreements.
The philosophy behind a network organizational structure is simple: complete an assignment. Whether that’s manufacturing a product, shipping goods or providing services, organizations that “network” with other businesses to complete tasks might employ this structure.
Team Organizational Structure
Team, or team-based, organizational structure refers to the business model that functions when groups of employees collaborate on teams towards a shared goal under the direction of one supervisor.
Contrary to the functional organizational structure, which groups people based on common skills, the team organizational structure groups people depending on an explicit goal, so oftentime, skill sets are deliberately different.
Given the nature of this structure, it’s very dynamic and ever changing, moving people from team to team as assignments come and go, making it advantageous for its emphasis on teamwork and collaboration, but not necessarily a feasible structure for the long-haul.
So, which should I choose?
Organizational structure is important when planning for the future of your business. How you decide to structure your org chart depends solely on your company’s goals, its players and how you envision its future.
When investing in an org chart software, look into options that enable you to visualize a variety of organizational structures. That way you have a platform that can accommodate all of your organization's changing needs.